What is Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia?
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia – carbohydrate-induced lipemia, or floating hyperlipoproteinemia.
Causes of Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia
The most common cause is homozygosity in one of the apoE isoforms – E2 / E2, which is characterized by a violation of binding to the LDL receptor.
Pathogenesis during Type III hyperlipoproteinemia
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is assumed to be inherited presumably from the recessive type.
Symptoms of Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia
The disease manifests itself in childhood. Characteristic features are yellowish-brown lipid deposits in the skin of the palmar lines, tendon and tuberose xanthomas, obesity. Often there are fatty infiltration of the liver, hyperuricemia. Many patients have pathological tolerance to carbohydrates, diabetes mellitus develops. Various manifestations of atherosclerosis are often found: ischemic heart disease, vascular lesions of the lower extremities.
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia occurs in adults with a variety of xanthomas, a tendency to obesity, and a high risk of early atherosclerosis.
Diagnosis of Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is rare, characterized by the presence of abnormal lipoprotein and therefore reliably established only by electrophoresis. It may be suspected if, during repeated blood tests, the content of cholesterol and triglycerides fluctuates, but the ratio between them remains close to 1.
Treatment of Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia
Treatment is reduced to the pathogenetic correction of metabolic and clinical syndromes.
For patients with primary and secondary hyperlipoproteinemia and normal body weight, 4-fold food intake is recommended, for obesity 5-6-fold, because rare meals contribute to an increase in body weight, a decrease in glucose tolerance, the occurrence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The main caloric intake should be in the first half of the day. for example, with 5 meals a day, the 1st breakfast should be 25% of the daily calories, the 2nd breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner, respectively, 15, 35, 10 and 15%. General strengthening therapy is also carried out, with obesity sufficient physical activity is necessary.
In type I hyperlipoproteinemia, heparin and other hypolipidemic agents have no effect. In pediatric practice, it is preferable to use drugs of a milder action: cholestyramine, clofibrate, etc. In some cases, anorectic drugs are prescribed for easier adaptation of the patient to the diet for a short time.
Effective treatments for alipoproteinemia and hypolipoproteinemia have not been developed.